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a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Jones, G. (2001). "Bats". In MacDonald, D. (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Mammals (2nded.). Oxford University Press. pp.754–775. ISBN 978-0-7607-1969-5. Anatomy and physiology [ edit ] Skull and dentition [ edit ] A preserved megabat showing how the skeleton fits inside its skin

Greville, Lucas J; Ceballos-Vasquez, Alejandra; Valdizón-Rodríguez, Roberto; Caldwell, John R; Faure, Paul A (16 May 2018). "Wound healing in wing membranes of the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus)". Journal of Mammalogy. 99 (4): 974–982. doi: 10.1093/jmammal/gyy050. ISSN 0022-2372. a b Teeling, E.C.; Springer, M. S.; Madsen, O.; Bates, P.; O'Brien, S. J.; Murphy, W. J. (2005). "A Molecular Phylogeny for Bats Illuminates Biogeography and the Fossil Record". Science. 307 (5709): 580–584. Bibcode: 2005Sci...307..580T. doi: 10.1126/science.1105113. PMID 15681385. S2CID 25912333. Neuweiler, Gerhard (2000). "The Circulatory and Respiratory Systems". The Biology of Bats. Oxford University Press. pp.43–62. ISBN 978-0-1950-9951-5.

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We have in the fossil record a non-echolocating bat that’s most closely related to a group of echolocating bats,” he says. But he noted that this is also true for present-day flying foxes, a group of large fruit-eating bats that cannot echolocate but are most closely related to a group of bats that can. “There’s possibly multiple origins of echolocation or there’s multiple losses of echolocation among even these earliest bats,” Jones says, “which is really, really bizarre.” Untangling the past

Fleming, T. (2003). A Bat Man in the Tropics: Chasing El Duende. University of California Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0520236066. Holland, R. A. (2004). "Echolocation signal structure in the Megachiropteran bat Rousettus aegyptiacus Geoffroy 1810". Journal of Experimental Biology. 207 (25): 4361–4369. doi: 10.1242/jeb.01288. PMID 15557022.Bats are eaten in countries across Africa, Asia and the Pacific Rim. In some cases, such as in Guam, flying foxes have become endangered through being hunted for food. [253] There is evidence that suggests that wind turbines might create sufficient barotrauma (pressure damage) to kill bats. [254] Bats have typical mammalian lungs, which are thought to be more sensitive to sudden air pressure changes than the lungs of birds, making them more liable to fatal rupture. [255] [256] [257] [258] [259] Bats may be attracted to turbines, perhaps seeking roosts, increasing the death rate. [255] Acoustic deterrents may help to reduce bat mortality at wind farms. [260]

The bat is sometimes used as a heraldic symbol in Spain and France, appearing in the coats of arms of the towns of Valencia, Palma de Mallorca, Fraga, Albacete, and Montchauvet. [278] [279] [280] Three US states have an official state bat. Texas and Oklahoma are represented by the Mexican free-tailed bat, while Virginia is represented by the Virginia big-eared bat ( Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus). [281] Economics [ edit ] The Chiroptera as a whole are in the process of losing the ability to synthesise vitamin C. [142] In a test of 34 bat species from six major families, including major insect- and fruit-eating bat families, all were found to have lost the ability to synthesise it, and this loss may derive from a common bat ancestor, as a single mutation. [143] [b] At least two species of bat, the frugivorous bat ( Rousettus leschenaultii) and the insectivorous bat ( Hipposideros armiger), have retained their ability to produce vitamin C. [144] Insects [ edit ] a b Wang, D.; Oakley, T.; Mower, J.; Shimmin, L. C.; Yim, S.; Honeycutt, R. L.; Tsao, H.; Li, W. H. (2004). "Molecular evolution of bat color vision genes". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 21 (2): 295–302. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msh015. PMID 14660703.Strauß, J.; Lakes-Harlan, R. (2014). "Evolutionary and Phylogenetic Origins of Tympanal Hearing Organs in Insects". In Hedwig, B. (ed.). Insect Hearing and Acoustic Communication. Animal Signals and Communication. Vol.1. Springer. pp.5–26. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-40462-7_2. ISBN 978-3-642-40462-7. When on the ground, most bats can only crawl awkwardly. A few species such as the New Zealand lesser short-tailed bat and the common vampire bat are agile on the ground. Both species make lateral gaits (the limbs move one after the other) when moving slowly but vampire bats move with a bounding gait (all limbs move in unison) at greater speeds, the folded up wings being used to propel them forward. Vampire bat likely evolved these gaits to follow their hosts while short-tailed bats developed in the absence of terrestrial mammal competitors. Enhanced terrestrial locomotion does not appear to have reduced their ability to fly. [65] Internal systems [ edit ] The specimens from France and India are probably not part of the same family of bats as the Icaronycteris species from Green River, limiting this group's presence to North America,' Neil says. 'This highlights that there were many different lineages of bats diversifying on multiple continents at even this early stage in their evolution.'

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